Conscription and militia system have always played a large role in the Swiss Armed Forces. Swiss citizens are actually so committed to conscription that on September 22, 2013, 73.2 percent of the electorate rejected a popular initiative to suppress it. However, Department of Defense (DDPS) officials admitted that only 50 percent Swiss males achieve their entire military service, de facto recognizing treatment inequality for military obligations. This research explores how Switzerland should restructure conscription and the militia system to meet actual conditions, what are the key strategic and social challenges to be addressed, and what the implications, and potential solutions are. It found that Swiss legal grounds linked to the conscription will not satisfy the international law, especially about discrimination. The recent Swiss people's decision only lets one valid option: opening the draft to women, and even permanent residents. This research also demonstrated that a balance between different factors is necessary for efficient security policies. Financial resources cannot alone define the reflection. A threat analysis and political consensus are also needed to find an equilibrium. The Armed Forces size is an equilibrium's consequence not a prerequisite.